Updated (thanks to DisplayName0 for adding to the chart!)
Updated (chart): There have been a lot of Congressional votes to raise the debt ceiling since FDR (1940). I've put together a public spreadsheet based on White House data. Vote dates and P.L. info are there, as well how much the debt ceiling was raised.
There is no information about the actual vote. Nor, alas, are their bill numbers.
If You'd Like To Help Source This Spreadsheet
Here's the link - find the Senate vote for each bill, record the Senate vote (Yea-Nay), Ds and Rs in support, and provide the URL that is the source of the vote info.
Note: if you have ever had any doubts about the effects of Reagan's tax cuts and expanded military spending, I hope this inflation-adjusted graph ends them.